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General Report Information
Chapter One - Introduction
Chapter Two - Key Findings
Chapter Three - Common Safety Program
Chapter Four - Recommendations and Implementation
Appendix A - European Contacts
Appendix B - Team Members
Appendix C - Amplifying Questions
The U.S. scanning study team is interested in talking to members of your highway
safety community who plan and determine how, where, and when resources are applied
to the area of highway safety. A discussion of the tools used to make these
decisions is also of interest. The panel members would like to visit projects
that have resulted from your highway safety programs, including projects that
represent both successful and not-so-successful approaches and procedures. The
following questions are divided into four categories to help focus our discussion.
- Existence, content, and effectiveness of national safety goals
- What are your national highway safety goals and objectives? Do you
have an implementation plan that indicates what strategies and funds
are needed to achieve these goals and objectives? If so, how are they
incorporated into the budgetary process? What performance measures do
you use to evaluate the success of their implementation?
- How do you incorporate safety into the transportation planning and/or
project development process at national, state, regional, and local
- How are national safety law changes established? Have you recently
enacted or are you planning to enact any significant highway safety
laws? Can local jurisdictions establish laws that are more stringent
than the national version?
- Decision-making processes and management policies and procedures
used to prioritize engineering, education, and enforcement elements of highway
- How has your country and organization changed its focus from reactive
to proactive highway safety initiatives to, for example, reduce the
number and severity of highway crashes?
- How do you determine the needed balance of engineering, enforcement,
and education and public information highway safety elements? What factors
are considered in your decision-making process? Do you believe your
prioritization scheme works well? What improvements (such as analytical
capability, data quality, etc.) do you see as necessary?
- What are the relative funding types and levels for the engineering,
enforcement, and education highway safety elements implemented in your
- Do you use an integrated team approach (i.e., interaction of engineer,
police officer, educator, public transit official, physician, etc.)
to guide, determine, and implement specific safety strategies? Please
indicate how this approach is structured and implemented, and provide
some examples of successful project results.
- How do you consider safety in highway projects that are selected
for reasons other than safety? For example, if a project is selected
to address capacity issues, how is safety explicitly considered?
- Resources, analytical tools, and legislative policies that guide
and/or support highway safety decisions and engineering, education, and
- What methods are used in your country to identify sites and corridors
in need of safety improvement, often known as high-crash locations or
"black spots?" Specifically, what criteria are used to systematically
review the roadway network and determine whether particular sites experience
more traffic crashes than expected?
- Has your country established formal procedures to diagnose safety
problems and identify appropriate improvements using the crash history
or other information at particular sites to decide whether a potentially
correctable pattern of crashes exists? Do you have accepted guidelines
that show a direct link between specific crash patterns and appropriate
- Do you use formal economic analysis procedures, such as benefit-cost
or costeffectiveness analyses, to decide which safety improvements to
make at specific sites?
- Do you use a formal priority ranking system for candidate safety
improvements to decide which sites should be improved first? What criteria
are considered in such rankings?
- Describe the role of data in your analysis approach. Are databases
for driver, vehicle, and crash information linked? If so, what reports
are routinely generated using the databases?
- How do the political process and legal profession affect your ability
to initiate highway safety programs? What type of legislative framework
supports highway safety programs in your country?
- Examples and results of successful highway safety programs that
resulted from the decision-making process and/or agency integration and
- What have been the most successful engineering, education, and enforcement
programs, actions, and improvements you have used to reduce traffic
crashes and injuries? If money were not a constraint, what programs
would you expand?
Some areas of interest to the panel include:
- Driver behavior (i.e., older and younger drivers, aggressive driving,
seat belt use, non-attentive driving, and driving while intoxicated)
- Fixed-object, run-off-the-road, and head-on crashes
- Signalized and non-signalized intersection crashes
- Non-motorist (pedestrian and bicyclist) and truck-related crashes
- Emergency response strategies
- Driver education and licensing requirements
- What organizational structure exists to complete highway safety functions
and implement highway safety programs? Does the organizational structure
of your safety staff allow easy interaction with other units of government?
- How do you achieve interagency and intra-agency cooperation in highway
safety practices? How important is cooperation and coordination (and
possible sharing of resources) among levels of government in your country?
What methods have you used to coordinate and what type of coordination
do you see as most important?
- Please describe the role of nongovernmental entities in achieving
highway safety improvements. What types of relationships have been most
effective and rewarding? What are the key success factors in these relationships?
- What structure do you have in place to work with other units of government
and the private sector on the transfer and implementation of effective
and innovative highway safety improvements (e.g., advanced safety technologies
and devices)? Provide examples of these innovations.
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