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Appendix A Amplifying Questions

The following general questions were submitted to the host countries before the scan team's visit.

  1. Experience
    • Please provide a brief history of pavement and pavement types in your country.
    • Describe the role that concrete pavement has played in this timeframe.
    • What types of concrete pavements have been used, and how have they performed?
  2. Current Usage
    • Please describe the current situation with concrete pavement in your country, with respect to pavement type selection, performance expectations, and short-term and long-term applications.
    • What role does life-cycle cost analysis play in decisions about pavement type and pavement design?
    • What are the factors considered in life-cycle cost analysis?
  3. Terminology
    • Do you use a term such as "long-life pavements" or something similar?
    • How do you distinguish between a "long-life" concrete pavement and concrete pavement designed for a "normal" life?
  4. Pavement Management
    • Do you use long-life pavements as part of your network-level pavement management?
    • Do you use pavements with longer service lives in some situations and pavements with shorter service lives in other situations to optimize the overall condition and performance of your pavement network?
    • How is information about pavement performance, specifically concrete pavement performance, used in your pavement management system?
  5. Government-Industry Relations
    • Please describe the relationship between government and the paving industry in your country with respect to pavement research and development, technical services, and training.
    • How does the industry work with the government?
    • What role do industry associations play?
  6. Public-Private Partnerships
    • How do public-private partnerships and concessionaires operate in your country, in terms of investment, pavement type selection, etc.?
    • What do you see as the probable future trends in public-private interaction in the pavement field in your country?
  7. Methods Used to Maximize Concrete Pavement Life
    • Materials evaluation (coarse and fine aggregate properties, cements, additives, fly ash, etc.)
    • Concrete mix design
    • Pavement thickness design
    • Pavement geometric design (slab dimensions, joint design, etc.)
    • Specifications
    • Construction procedures
    • Maintenance practices (including winter maintenance)
    • Rapid construction and rehabilitation techniques

The following detailed questions were used by the scan team members in discussions with their hosts in the countries visited.

  1. Experience
    • 1.1. What types of concrete pavements do you build?
    • 1.2. What are the typical failure modes for your concrete pavements?
  2. Current Usage
    • 2.1. How are initial costs and life-cycle costs balanced in the decisionmaking process of pavement selection and design?
  3. Terminology
    • 3.1. What design life (in years or accumulated traffic) is used for concrete pavements?
  4. Pavement Management
    • 4.1. Are materials and construction data stored and subsequently linked to long-term performance?
    • 4.2. How are functional characteristics (smoothness, friction, noise) controlled during the life cycle of a "long-life" pavement?
  5. Government-Industry Relations
    • (No detailed questions)
  6. Public-Private Partnerships
    • (No detailed questions)
  7. Methods Used to Maximize Concrete Pavement Life
    • 7.1. How much emphasis is placed on concrete materials versus structural design when designing a "long-life" pavement?
    • 7.2. What types of aggregates do you use in concrete slabs?
    • 7.3. What quality requirements do you have for aggregates used in concrete slabs?
    • 7.4. What types of aggregates do you use in bases and subbases?
    • 7.5. What quality requirements do you have for aggregates used in bases and subbases?
    • 7.6. Is aggregate availability a concern? If so, how do you address that?
    • 7.7. In the United States, the practice for aggregates is shifting to use of combined aggregate grading (e.g., the Shilstone approach) instead of gap-graded aggregates for slipform paving. What is your agency's current practice? Is this practice a change from previous practice?
    • 7.8. What types of cements do you use?
    • 7.9. What kinds of supplementary cementitious materials and/or chemical admixtures do you use? What limits, if any, do you place on the use of supplementary cementitious materials for paving concrete?
    • 7.10. For what types of materials will you accept the manufacturer's certification in lieu of testing upon receipt? Is there a trend toward or away from acceptance of manufacturer's certification in lieu of testing?
    • 7.11. How willing is the agency to accept substitutions for conventional materials using new and innovative alternatives? How are the costs and risks shared when substitutions are used?
    • 7.12. What has been the result of European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and European Organization for Technical Approvals (EOTA) normalization on concrete pavement material evaluations in your country? Does your country use specifications or procedures not standardized under CEN or EOTA?
    • 7.13. What procedures are used to design your concrete mixtures? What materials properties, performance indicators, or other factors (e.g., cost, air content, strength, workability, cracking resistance) are used to optimize and/or select your concrete mixtures? Which of these factors is most important?
    • 7.14. Is compatibility of concrete materials a concern for your agency? Do you test for compatibility of various concrete materials?
    • 7.15. Are alkali-silica reactivity (ASR) and/or D-cracking concerns for your agency? If so, how do you address these problems?
    • 7.16. Are recycled materials used in concrete pavements? If so, what requirements do you have for recycled materials used as aggregate?
    • 7.17. Is the concrete mixture used by the contractor considered a proprietary product?
    • 7.18. Do you test for concrete drying shrinkage and/or coefficient of thermal expansion? If so, how?
    • 7.19. Do you perform testing for concrete permeability?
    • 7.20. What type(s) of joint sealing materials do you use?
    • 7.21. What are the typical thicknesses and thickness ranges for the base, concrete slab, and asphalt concrete surface (if any) for the type or types of concrete pavements you build?
    • 7.22. Do you use a structural design procedure to design pavements or do you use a design catalog approach?
    • 7.23. What performance measures (smoothness, International Roughness Index (IRI), noise, specific distresses) do you use in concrete pavement design? What condition levels are used to define "failure?"
    • 7.24. What are your practices with respect to the following:
      • Joint spacing
      • Dowels at transverse joints (size, spacing, materials, corrosion prevention, etc.)
      • JRCP steel reinforcement (size, spacing, layers, corrosion prevention, etc.)
      • CRCP steel reinforcement (size, spacing, layers, corrosion prevention, etc.)
      • Texturing
      • Curing
      • Joint sawing (one versus two cuts, conventional versus early entry saws)
      • Joint sealing
    • 7.25. Do you use any of the following, and if so, do you have any design or performance issues associated with them?
      • Concrete shoulders
      • Widened slabs
      • Subsurface drainage systems
    • 7.26. What types of stabilized or unstabilized bases and subbases do you use? Do you have any design or performance issues with any particular base types?
    • 7.27. What types of reinforcement (e.g., round steel, flat "ribbon" steel, glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP), etc.) have been used in concrete pavements in your country? What, if any, differences in performances have there been in pavements with different types of reinforcement?
    • 7.28. How are pavement terminals designed for your reinforced pavements? Is terminal anchorage (e.g., anchor lugs, slabs) used? Is pavement reinforcement ever tied into reinforcement of adjacent bridges or structures?
    • 7.29. What concrete strength do you specify?
    • 7.30. What surface texture requirements do you specify?
    • 7.31. How do you specify concrete workability? What testing is conducted to determine concrete workability?
    • 7.32. Do you use end result, quality assurance/quality control, or performance-based specifications for paving concrete?
    • 7.33. Who performs construction testing—the agency or the contractor?
    • 7.34. Is the contractor required to submit a quality management plan?
    • 7.35. Do you use warranties for concrete pavements and, if so, for what duration?
    • 7.36. What materials properties are evaluated by the public agency if the project is constructed under a warranty contract versus another contract type? What pavement performance indicators are monitored in each instance?
    • 7.37. What requirements do you have for the foundation (including embankment)?
    • 7.38. What are your workability requirements for slipformed concrete? Do you conduct any testing to determine concrete workability?
    • 7.39. How do you test freshly placed concrete? Do you test for the following?
      • Consolidation
      • Air content
      • Segregation
    • 7.40. How much hand finishing is allowed behind the paver for slipformed concrete?
    • 7.41. For dowel bars, do you use baskets or inserter machines? If inserters are used, what has been your experience with them? Do you test for dowel alignment? If so, what method is used?
    • 7.42. Are multiple-lift pavers used?
    • 7.43. Are nondestructive test methods (e.g., maturity, pulse velocity, MIT-SCAN) used to check in-place concrete properties? If so, do these supplement or replace traditional test methods?
    • 7.44. What acceptance criteria do you think are most important?
    • 7.45. What are the certification requirements for the contractor's crew and for testing and inspection personnel?
    • 7.46. Do you reseal joints? If so, is it done on a regular predetermined cycle or as needed based on sealant condition?
    • 7.47. What types of maintenance and repair cycles (surface grinding, etc.) do you consider acceptable?
    • 7.48. Do you consider expedited construction a tradeoff with longer life, or can both be achieved for a single project?
    • 7.49. What rapid construction methods are used for long-life concrete pavements?
    • 7.50. What rapid rehabilitation methods are used for long-life concrete pavements?
    • 7.51. Do you use high early strength concrete mixtures for rapid construction and/or rehabilitation? If so, what are the criteria for opening to traffic?
    • 7.52. Do you use precast paving, and if so, in what situations?
    • 7.53. How are repairs performed on CRCP?
    • 7.54. What deicing materials do you use on concrete pavements?
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Page last modified on November 7, 2014
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