U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590
Shared mobility services provide users with short-term access to transportation on an as-needed basis rather than through ownership. While ride-sourcing services are recent entrants to the industry, they have come to dominate what is thought of as shared mobility in the United States, often drowning out other shared alternatives. In Europe, the concept of shared use mobility has existed for decades, with some services dating back to the 1940s. Several European cities have developed programs that successfully improved mobility and reduced drive-alone trips. Others have integrated these services with existing public transport services. European public entities also have experience with a greater range of public-private partnership arrangements than many U.S. counterparts. FHWA undertook this study to identify and assess European practices for establishing, supporting, and regulating shared mobility services that could be applied in the United States.
This study presents key elements behind successful shared-use mobility programs in Europe, with findings falling under four main themes: 1) boundary-defying public-private partnerships and contracting methods, 2) proactive planning and design for shared infrastructure and electrification, 3) forward thinking transit agency leadership with a vision for shared mobility connectivity, and 4) development of “whole community” approaches to reduce personal vehicle travel and to create and support shared mobility.