U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590

Skip to content U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Highway AdministrationU.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Highway Administration

Office of International Programs

FHWA Home / Office of International Programs

Chapter 3: Key Findings

Based on the case studies summarized in Chapter 2, the scan team developed a set of key findings. The findings are organized by the four types of measures-physical, operational, financial/pricing, and institutional-plus separate findings on performance measurement.

Physical Measures

Physical measures either restrict the use of cars in certain areas or during certain times of the day, or involve strategic improvements to the transportation network to enhance system efficiency or provide new capacity for public transport or high occupancy vehicles. The physical measures observed in Europe to influence demand include the following:

Operational Measures

At the heart of operational measures to manage demand are enhanced choices and traveler information about these choices. Among the interesting strategies the scan team observed were the following:

Financial/Pricing Measures

Congestion pricing is widely acknowledged as an effective demand management tool, but it is also being used to address environmental concerns, fund new public transport improvements, and preserve historic city centers. Key findings include the following:

Institutional Measures

Demand management requires new partnerships, planning processes, and approaches to address traffic congestion. The ability to institutionalize a demand management philosophy in supply-oriented organizations is a key factor in the success of the endeavor. The integration of many strategies into a cohesive, comprehensive approach is one key to maximizing intended effects.


Performance Measurement

Performance measurement was a key component of many of the programs, projects, and initiatives the scan team explored. Performance measurement was used to both monitor fulfillment of objectives to assure accountability to policymakers and set future policy objectives based on careful monitoring of the system.

<< Previous Contents Next >>
Page last modified on November 7, 2014.
Federal Highway Administration | 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE | Washington, DC 20590 | 202-366-4000